By Meyer, Hurst, Gray, Lewis
The 5th version keeps its completeness, updates the insurance of bipolar applied sciences, and complements the dialogue of bicmos. It offers a extra unified therapy of electronic and analog circuit layout whereas strengthening the assurance of cmos. The bankruptcy on non-linear analog circuits has been got rid of and bankruptcy eleven has been up to date to incorporate an operational amplifier instance. types for integrated-circuit energetic units bipolar, mos, and bicmos integrated-circuit know-how single-transistor and multiple-transistor amplifiers present mirrors, lively lots, and references output levels operational amplifiers with single-ended outputs frequency reaction of built-in circuits suggestions frequency reaction and balance of suggestions amplifiers nonlinear analog circuits noise in built-in circuits absolutely differential operational amplifiers
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The 5th variation keeps its completeness, updates the insurance of bipolar applied sciences, and complements the dialogue of bicmos. It offers a extra unified remedy of electronic and analog circuit layout whereas strengthening the assurance of cmos. The bankruptcy on non-linear analog circuits has been got rid of and bankruptcy eleven has been up-to-date to incorporate an operational amplifier instance.
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Additional info for Analysis and Design of Analog Integrated Circuits
For example, consider the base current IB . From Fig. 73) have opposite signs, the effect of ICO is to decrease the magnitude of the external base current at a given value of collector current. EXAMPLE If ICO is 10−10 A at 24◦ C, estimate its value at 120◦ C. 2 the mechanism of avalanche breakdown in a pn junction was described. Similar effects occur at the base-emitter and base-collector junctions of a transistor and these effects limit the maximum voltages that can be applied to the device. First consider a transistor in the common-base conﬁguration shown in Fig.
48). 82), and the decrease in βF is due to an additional component in IB , which is mainly due to recombination of carriers in the base-emitter depletion region and is present at any current level. 16 Base and collector currents of a bipolar transistor plotted on a log scale versus VBE on a linear scale. The distance between the curves is a direct measure of ln βF . 4 Small-Signal Models of Bipolar Transistors 25 little effect. 86) indicates that βF is proportional to IC at very low collector currents.
These pictures can now be used to derive the various elements in the small-signal equivalent circuit of the bipolar transistor. 91) The transconductance thus depends linearly on the bias current IC and is 38 mA/V for IC = 1 mA at 25◦ C for any bipolar transistor of either polarity (npn or pnp), of any size, and made of any material (Si, Ge, GaAs). To illustrate the limitations on the use of small-signal analysis, the foregoing relation will be derived in an alternative way. The total collector current in Fig.