By C. Glenn
Tracing the history of Native American education in North the USA, this booklet emphasizes elements in society at large – and infrequently within indigenous groups – which led to Native American children being break free the white majority. Charles Glenn examines the evolving assumptions approximately race and tradition as utilized to education, the reactions of folks and tribal management within the usa and Canada, and the symbolic in addition to useful position of indigenous languages and of efforts to take care of them.
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Additional resources for American Indian First Nations Schooling: From the Colonial Period to the Present
A Church for each of the three Districts, to be used also as school houses . . [and] . . ” This, they argued, would be more effective than schools for the individual tribes, since by bringing together Indians from a variety of tribes, they would be forced to learn and use English. 26 On the other hand, this civilizing work should be carried out at a safe distance from the corrupting influence of white settlements. As President Andrew Jackson put it, in his Message to Congress in December 1833, the Cherokee and Seminole could not continue to exist surrounded by our settlements and in continued contact with our citizens.
Indd 32 5/4/2011 8:58:25 AM Wards of Government ● 33 In the meantime, the chosen instrument for regulating relationships with Indians was the formal treaty between the federal government and a tribe, in effect treating the tribe as a sovereign entity. Between 1803 and 1885, the American Senate approved almost 400 treaties with Indian peoples, of which 120 included promises that the government would provide education to the tribe, usually in exchange for land thus opened to settlers. Such treaties were by no means uncontroversial, since they could be interpreted as superseding the authority of state and territorial governments over Indian tribes and lands; refusal to recognize the authority of treaties or to enforce their conditions by restricting white encroachments was the basis of much injustice and many conflicts, leading to the expulsion of the Southeastern tribes in the 1830s.
I believe also that there is in the Indian a perfect capability of adapting himself to the customs of the white people . . ”35 The 1876 Indian Act “authorized the [Canadian] federal government to direct all of the activities of Indian people. . ”37 Not all Indian peoples became wards of government in the full sense; the “Five Civilized Nations,” in particular, were able with considerable success to maintain semi-independent status with an elaborated tribal government and a range of institutions similar to those of white society.