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By Kohki Takatoh

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However, optical retardation measurements using ellipsometry for visible light can evaluate the anisotropy of a thin membrane, and can be used to evaluate the alignment of the molecules in the alignment material after rubbing [5, 23, 24, 29, 50, 51]. Aerle et al. reported that the phase retardation increased steadily with pile impression. The influence of the pile impression of the rubbing cloth on the rubbing-induced optical retardation Àr of the orienting layer, and on the normal force FN exerted by the rubbing cloth on the samples is shown in Fig.

An increase in the tilt angle of the main chain with increase in the side chain length was also observed as shown in Fig. 27 [41, 59]. From the results of water contact angle measurements, the side chains are oriented inward. Therefore, the side chains may not directly affect the pretilt angle generation of the LC. A linear relationship between the pretilt angle of the LC and the tilt angle of the main chain of the polymer was observed with or without side chains, independent of the length of the side chains, and an asymmetric distribution between the parallel and antiparallel directions relative to the rubbing direction was considered to be due to the asymmetric tilt angle of the main chains.

29 where the introduction of the fluorinated moiety increases the roughness of the surface, and an increasing average tilt angle of the main chains seems to cause a larger pretilt angle of the LC [33]. Some studies have mentioned a relationship between the surface tension of the alignment layer and the pretilt angle of the LC. 0 (c) Fig. 28 Alignment models of nematic LC on rubbed polyimide surface. Reproduction by permission from [33]. The relationship between the surface tension of the alignment layer and the pretilt angle of the LC does not always hold.

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