Download Advances in Electromagnetic Fields in Living Systems: Volume by James C. Lin PDF

By James C. Lin

This accomplished and topical quantity offers a few major advances on many fronts during this quarter of study, fairly emphasizing present and destiny biomedical purposes of electromagnetic fields.

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For example, the strength of the magnetic field measured depends on the distance between the pick-up coil and the location of the electrical activity within the fetal heart. It depends also on the direction of the field component measured in relation with the generator within the fetal heart. Moreover, it depends on the currents that are present in the tissues surrounding the fetal heart. These currents are caused by the electrical activity within the heart. The currents are deflected at the interfaces between different tissues.

In case the dipole points in another direction, similar results are obtained. In conclusion, it is found that due to the presence of the amniotic fluid, the currents are confined within the uterus. Hence, it is to be expected that currents in the abdominal compartment play a minor role in the computation of the magnetic field. Consequently, it is unnecessary to subdivide this compartment. This expectation is confirmed by simulations [Stinstra, 2001]. To study the volume conduction in a realistically shaped model three MR-images were obtained from pregnant women in the period ranging between 21 to 30 weeks of gestation.

Modeling the Fetal Heart Electrical Activity As the heart of the newborn has not had any time to adapt to the different pressure distribution in the heart, the electrical activity in the heart of the newborn should resemble that of the fetus. Therefore, the current dipole may be obtained from vector ECGs measured shortly after birth. Vector ECGs were measured by Namin [1996] in 100 subjects 30 hours after birth and by DePasquale and Burch [1963] in 50 subjects within the first week of life. The dipole orientations differ with respect to those obtained in adults.

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