By James C. Lin
This accomplished and topical quantity offers a few major advances on many fronts during this quarter of study, fairly emphasizing present and destiny biomedical purposes of electromagnetic fields.
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Additional info for Advances in Electromagnetic Fields in Living Systems: Volume 4 (Advances in Electromagnetic Fields in Living Systems)
For example, the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld measured depends on the distance between the pick-up coil and the location of the electrical activity within the fetal heart. It depends also on the direction of the ﬁeld component measured in relation with the generator within the fetal heart. Moreover, it depends on the currents that are present in the tissues surrounding the fetal heart. These currents are caused by the electrical activity within the heart. The currents are deﬂected at the interfaces between different tissues.
In case the dipole points in another direction, similar results are obtained. In conclusion, it is found that due to the presence of the amniotic ﬂuid, the currents are conﬁned within the uterus. Hence, it is to be expected that currents in the abdominal compartment play a minor role in the computation of the magnetic ﬁeld. Consequently, it is unnecessary to subdivide this compartment. This expectation is conﬁrmed by simulations [Stinstra, 2001]. To study the volume conduction in a realistically shaped model three MR-images were obtained from pregnant women in the period ranging between 21 to 30 weeks of gestation.
Modeling the Fetal Heart Electrical Activity As the heart of the newborn has not had any time to adapt to the different pressure distribution in the heart, the electrical activity in the heart of the newborn should resemble that of the fetus. Therefore, the current dipole may be obtained from vector ECGs measured shortly after birth. Vector ECGs were measured by Namin  in 100 subjects 30 hours after birth and by DePasquale and Burch  in 50 subjects within the ﬁrst week of life. The dipole orientations differ with respect to those obtained in adults.