Download Across Atlantic Ice: The Origin of America's Clovis Culture by Dennis J. Stanford, Bruce A. Bradley PDF

By Dennis J. Stanford, Bruce A. Bradley

Who have been the 1st people to inhabit North the USA? in accordance with the now conventional tale, mammal hunters entered the continent a few 12,000 years in the past through a land bridge that spanned the Bering Sea. certain stone instruments belonging to the Clovis tradition verified the presence of those early New international humans. yet are the Clovis instruments Asian in starting place? Drawing from unique archaeological research, paleoclimatic learn, and genetic reports, famous archaeologists Dennis J. Stanford and Bruce A. Bradley problem the previous narrative and, within the method, counter traditional--and frequently subjective--approaches to archaeological trying out for old relatedness. The authors follow rigorous scholarship to a speculation that locations the technological antecedents of Clovis in Europe and posits that the 1st american citizens crossed the Atlantic by way of boat and arrived ahead of formerly notion. providing archaeological and oceanographic proof to help this statement, the publication dismantles the previous paradigm whereas persuasively linking Clovis expertise with the tradition of the Solutrean those who occupied France and Spain greater than 20,000 years in the past.

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The images that we receive can therefore alter our own memories as well as our perception of a situation or place. The way people view the wall today is in a similar way dependent on a vast amount of images of it that has been projected over the years. As our own memories fade they are recreated through the images we receive from outside ourselves. Many peoples’ view of the Iron Curtain and the Berlin Wall is solely built on second hand information never having seen the actual wall during its existence.

A major archaeological study of what remained of the Berlin Wall was carried out between 2001–2003 by the Department of Architectural Conservation at the Brandenburg University of Technology, Cottbus, Germany on behalf of the Berlin State Authorities. The aim of the study was to record any remaining features of the former border structure. The results were presented in Alex Klausmeier and Leo Schmidt’s book “Wall Remnants – Wall Traces”. Presented in the format of a guidebook this archaeological survey covers the full length of the inner city wall through Berlin (Klausmeier and Schmidt 2004:13).

For many people in the West this is the typical picture of the Iron Curtain. The Iron Curtain has become synonymous with the Berlin Wall. When discussing the location of the former Iron Curtain, people often refer to the inner German border, continuing along the borders of former Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, Yugoslavia and Italy: a long barrier between Eastern and Western Europe, a divider of ideologies that kept the communist in and the capitalist out, or was it the other way around? These ideas of what the Iron Curtain was are a fusion of the physical and the abstract, a metaphor with a physical face.

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