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By Johan Janson Olstam.

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Extra info for A model for simulation and generation of surrounding vehicles in driving simulators

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The simulated vehicle closest to the candidate area treats the first vehicle in the candidate area as any other simulated vehicle. Thus it uses the car-following model to adjust the speed and the lanechanging or overtaking model in order to decide whether it should try to overtake the candidate vehicle. This is similar to the approach used in the other candidate area, but instead of applying the car-following model on the candidate vehicle it is here applied on the following vehicle in the simulated area.

It also varies between lane changes to the right and to the left and between lead and lag gaps. However, critical gaps are hard to observe, in principle only accepted gaps and to some extent rejected gaps can be measured. Thus, it is hard to measure how critical gaps, for example, vary among drivers and over time for a specific driver. One approach is therefore to use one critical gap for all drivers, but different critical values for lead and lag gaps and for changes to the right and left. This approach is for instance used in the model presented in Kosonen (1999).

Drivers’ willingness to accept an overtaking opportunity varies quite a lot. One driver may reject a gap whether another accepts the same gap, and one driver that accepts a gap at one point in time can reject an equal gap at another time. The drivers’ willingness to accept an available gap is generally modeled with some kind of gap-acceptance model. As in the lane-changing case the most simple way to model this is to use one common critical gap for all drivers, for example as in the model presented in Ahmad and Papelis (2000).

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