Download A Dictionary of Ancient Near Eastern Architecture by Gwendolyn Leick PDF

By Gwendolyn Leick

This Dictionary provides a accomplished survey of the total diversity of old close to japanese structure from the Neolithic around huts in Palestine to the enormous temples of Ptolemaic Egypt. Gwendolyn Leick examines the improvement of the relevant kinds of historic structure inside of their geographical and historic context, and describes good points of significant websites resembling Ur, Nineveh and Babylon, in addition to the various lesser-known websites. She additionally covers the differences of general historical architectural buildings equivalent to pyramids, tombs and homes, info the construction fabric and strategies hired, and clarifies expert terminology.

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Sample text

They were virtually indispensable for monumental buildings because they could span much larger spaces (8–12m), and exports to Egypt and Mesopotamia are attested from the 3rd millennium BC onwards. Beni-Hasan Egypt, see map p. xvi. Cemetery on a cliffface on the E side of the Nile near Minya. It contains thirty-nine ROCK TOMBS dating from the XI and XII Dynasties (c. Beni-Hasan: rock-cut tomb (Middle Kingdom) 2133–1786 BC) which had been commissioned by wealthy administrators (nomarchs). The oldest tombs at Beni-Hasan have a simple square tomb-chamber with a single or treble row of columns or pillars cut from the rock.

Then a fire of brushwood bundles, thorns etc, is lit inside the structure which has to be fed continuously for up to forty-eight hours until the whole dome glows red, showing that the necessary temperature has been reached. Kilns with a furnace and fired with wood are also in use. Ancient methods must have been very similar, although it is not clear what kind of fuel was used (in southern Mesopotamia probably dried reeds). Such methods are relatively inefficient; the waste caused by over- and under-burning is high and the fuel consumption can be up to a quarter of the weight of the bricks.

The possibilities for building by agglutination became apparent as soon as rectangular house plans replaced the Alaça Hüyük: sphinx gate 9 ALALAKH Alalakh see TELL ATCHANA the hieroglyphic sign for offering, representing a mat with a piece of bread on it. The altar was rectangular or square with a central round slab made of limestone or alabaster (eg in ABUSIR, DASHUR: mortuary temple, KARNAK: Tuthmosis III). Another type was made of simple brick or stone masonry blocks with torus and cornice and a small ramp or a low parapet.

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