Download A Beginner's Guide to Scientific Method , 4th Edition by Stephen S. Carey PDF

By Stephen S. Carey

This concise but entire advisor offers an creation to the medical approach to inquiry. you won't basically find out about the correct behavior of technology but in addition find out how to realize and query components akin to pseudoscience, untestable factors and fallacies. Compact sufficient for use as a supplementary e-book, but accomplished adequate in its assurance for use as a center ebook, this publication assists clients in utilizing the medical technique to layout and examine experiments.

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Extra resources for A Beginner's Guide to Scientific Method , 4th Edition

Sample text

New findings in science need not be as revolutionary as the examples we have considered for them to challenge conventional thinking. Many anomalies suggest the need for small, incremental changes to prevailing theory. A recent article in the science section of my local newspaper tells of the discovery that prehistoric cave paintings in southern France are much older than previously believed. Radiocarbon dating reveals that some of the paintings are about 30,000 years old. Previous estimates had suggested that such paintings were done sometime between 12,000 to 17,000 years ago.

Positive Correlation In two populations, P and Q are positively correlated if a greater percentage of Ps than non-Ps have Q. Suppose that nationwide, people with cell phones have, on average, a higher income than people without cell phones. Cell phone ownership and income are positively correlated. In a single population, if a regular increase in one trait, P, is accompanied by a regular increase in another, Q, then the two are positively correlated. Suppose worker productivity at a plant increases as pay increases, though with some exceptions.

Underlying processes, unlike causal mechanisms, do not attempt to “fill in the gap” between cause and effect by positing intervening causes. Rather the point is to redescribe the phenomena only now at a more basic level. Molecular bombardment is thus not the cause of Brownian motion. Molecular bombardment is Brownian motion described from the point of view of molecular chemistry, a point of view that sheds considerable explanatory insight into the nature of the phenomena. Explanation by underlying processes is sometimes said to be reductionistic, in that descriptions of phenomena at one level are reduced to descriptions at another, more basic level.

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